Dr Deming's 14 Admonitions for the Achievement of TQM.
Was Dr Deming?
W Edwards Deming was an American statistician who was born in 1900 and died in 1993.
He came to prominence during the Second World War when
his approach to quality management significantly improved war
Deming was the prime mover behind the spectacular
post-war revival of Japanese industry. Naturally, his philosophy has since been closely studied and
adopted by organisations across the world.
was given an award by former Emperor Hirohito, and the Deming
Prize was named after him.
But Dr Deming is mostly remembered for his 14-point plan
for the achievement of Total Quality Management (TQM).
Deming's 14 Point Plan.
constancy of purpose towards improvement of product and service,
with the aim to become competitive, stay in business, and to
must both run the day-to-day business and guide the company into
the future. Achieving
this requires a consistency of purpose and dedication to
these people fear to take action because the rules change.
the new philosophy. We are in a new economic age. Western
management must awaken to the challenge, must learn their
responsibilities, and take on leadership for change.
errors can only be eliminated by management because they are
caused by the system rather than by individuals.
Cultural change involves everyone in an organisation.
dependence on inspection to achieve quality. Eliminate the need
for inspection on a mass basis by creating quality into the
product in the first place.
inspection controls the product, not the process which produces
the product (or service). It
doesn?t prevent faults, but finds them at a point in time when
they are expensive to correct.
organisations rarely estimate wasted effort correcting faults as
lower than 10% of all effort.
Elimination of this waste would have a positive effect on
both the balance sheet and staff morale.
the quality of incoming materials. End the practice of awarding
business on the basis of a price alone. Instead, depend on
meaningful measures of quality, along with price.
of the problems of poor quality and low productivity are due to
the poor quality of incoming materials and the low quality of
tools and machines. Implement
the concept of ?total costs? or ?cost of ownership? in
order to identify critical factors..
the problems; constantly improve the system of production and
constantly to raise productivity and reduce costs.
modern methods of training and education for all.
worker and every manager needs to be properly trained to perform
their job correctly. It
is not good enough for an insufficiently trained employee to
educate a newcomer.
leadership. The aim of leadership should be to help people and
machines and gadgets to do a better job. Leadership of
management is in need of overhaul, as well as leadership of
is a fundamental difference between leadership and management.
Leaders coach people to achieve their full potential.
Managers direct people.
Good managers are also leaders.
out fear so that everyone may work effectively for the company.
causes people to behave defensively. They don?t dare share their observations with management
and they are motivated to falsify records in order to protect
who habitually rule by fear will prevent continuous improvement
from happening, unless they are either adequately coached or
down barriers between departments. People in research, design,
sales, and production must work as a team, to foresee problems
of production and in use that may be encountered with the
product or service.
are what drives production of products or delivery of services.
Processes go across departmental boundaries.
Management of the process is central to success, but can
be rendered useless by performance targets applied to individual
slogans, exhortations, and targets for the work force that ask
for zero defects and new levels of productivity.
bulk of problems relating to poor quality or low productivity
lie in the process. The
workforce cannot overcome these by themselves, no matter how
much encouragement is applied.
The management need to be seen to be taking
responsibility for correcting problems with the process.
work standards (quotas) on the factory floor. Substitute
leadership. Eliminate management by objective. Eliminate
management by numbers, numerical goals. Substitute leadership.
beings behave in whatever way their targets lead them.
Quotas without quality standards can be
instance, managers can achieve their production bonuses by
shipping out incomplete or untested items.
It then costs money for the organisation to correct these
the collapse of the Soviet system it was common for steel
producers in Eastern Europe to manufacture large objects,
despite the urgent need for small tacks for the furniture
reason was simply that the steel producers were given tonnage
targets in each 5-year plan, and the most effective way to meet
these targets was to produce large objects.
the barriers that rob hourly workers, and people in management,
of their right to pride of workmanship. This implies, abolition
of the annual merit rating (appraisal of performance) and of
management by objective.
targets given to managers and supervisors need to be changed
from bald numbers to quality.
Feedback to staff needs to be more regular, if not
a vigorous programme of education, and encourage
self-improvement for everyone.
need people who are not just good, but are improving with
education. If two
organisations are superficially similar then the one with the
competitive advantage is the one with the best educated staff.
management's permanent commitment to ever-improving quality and
productivity must be clearly defined and a management structure
created that will continuously take action to follow the
preceding 13 points.
management needs to take action, and be seen to take action.
Total Quality Management requires effort from everyone in
the organisation, not just the workforce and not just the
Dr Deming also wrote his 7
Deadly Diseases of Management.
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